Blown Film Extrusion Introduction

Blown Film Extrusion Introduction
Blown film extrusion is a technology that is the most common method to make plastic films, especially for the packaging industry. The process involves extruding a tube of molten polymer through a die and inflating to several times its initial diameter to form a thin film bubble. This bubble is then collapsed and used as a lay-flat film or can be made into bags. Usually polyethylene is used with this process, and other materials can be used as blends with these polymers. A diagram of a polyethylene chain is shown in Figure 1 to the right.
Background Theory on Polymers

In the cooling step of blown film extrusion, the amorphous, transparent melt crystallizes to form a translucent, hazy, or opaque film. The point where opacity begins in the bubble is known as the frost line. 
Fig 1: Model of polytheylene chain frompolyethylene Wikipedia article.The frost line height is controlled by several parameters: the air flow, film speed, and temperature difference between the film and the surroundings. Properties of the film, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, toughness, and optical properties, drastically change depending on the orientation of the molecules. As the transverse or hoop direction properties increase, the machine or longitudinal direction properties decrease. For instance, if all the molecules were aligned in the machine direction, it would be easy to tear the film in that direction, and very difficult in the transverse direction.

The Film Blowing machine Process

Fig 2: Schematic of set-up from User:J.Chiang.

Typically, blown film extrusion is carried out vertically upwards, however horizontal and downward extrusion processes are now becoming more common. Figure 2 shows a schematic of the set-up for blown film extrusion. This procedure consists of four main steps: The polymer material starts in a pellet form, which are successively compacted and melted to form a continuous, viscous liquid. This molten plastic is then forced, or extruded, through an annular die. Air is injected through a hole in the center of the die, and the pressure causes the extruded melt to expand into a bubble. The air entering the bubble replaces air leaving it, so that even and constant pressure is maintained to ensure uniform thickness of the film. The bubble is pulled continually upwards from the die and a cooling ring blows air onto the film. The film can also be cooled from the inside using internal bubble cooling. This reduces the temperature inside the bubble, while maintaining the bubble diameter. After solidification at the frost line, the film moves into a set of nip rollers which collapse the bubble and flatten it into two flat film layers. The puller rolls pull the film onto windup rollers. The film passes through idler rolls during this process to ensure that there is uniform tension in the film. Between the nip rollers and the windup rollers, the film may pass through a treatment centre, depending on the application. During this stage, the film may be slit to form one or two films, or surface treated. Advantages Blown film generally has a better balance of mechanical properties than cast or extruded films because it is drawn in both the transverse and machine directions. Mechanical properties of the thin film include tensile and flexural strength, and toughness. The nearly uniform properties in both directions allow for maximum toughness in the film.
Blown film extrusion can be used to make one large film, two smaller ones, or tubes that can be made into bags. Also, one die can make many different widths and sizes without significant trimming. This high level of flexibility in the process leads to less scrap material and higher productivity. Blown films also require lower melting temperatures than cast extrusion. Measured at the die opening, the temperature of cast film is about 220 C, where as the temperature of blown film is about 135 C. Furthermore, the cost of the equipment is approximately 50% of a cast line.

Blown Film Extrusion Disadvantages Blown film has a less effective cooling process than flat film. Flat film cooling is done by means of chill rolls or water, which have significantly higher specific heat capacities than the air that is used in the blown film cooling process. The higher specific heat capacity allows the substance to absorb more heat with less change in the substance temperature. Compared to cast film, blown film has a more complicated and less accurate method to control film thickness; cast film has a thickness variation of 1 to 2% versus the 3 to 4% for blown film. The resins used for casting typically have a lower melt flow index, which is the amount of polymer that can be forced through a standard die in 10 minutes according to a standard procedure. The melt flow index for cast film is about 5.0 g/10 min where as for blown film it is about 1.0 g/10 min. Consequently, the production rates for cast film are higher: cast film lines can reach production rates of up to 300m/min where as blown film lines are usually less than half this value. And finally, cast film has better optical properties, including transparency, haze, and gloss.

Common Problems Air entrapment between film layers and rollers – this may cause film scratching or wrinkling, or processing problems when winding up the film due to reduced friction. Possible solutions to this is using a vacuum to remove entrapped air or by using winding rolls with a diamond shaped groove in the rubber cover to increase surface area and decrease amount of entrapped air in the film. Large output fluctuations from the die – this causes thickness variations, and can be prevented by keeping the extruder clean and by using more consistently shaped pellets in the extruder. Melt fractures – these appear as roughness or wavy lines on the film surface, and can be eliminated by lowering the viscosity of the polymer melt. This can be done by increasing the melting temperature or by adding an internal lubricant to the material composition. Thickness variations in the film – this can be avoided by centering the die in the extrusion line before every run, adjusting the air speed of the cooling system, or by using heated die lips. Die lines on the surface of the film – this defect reduces the aesthetic appeal of the film, reduces optical properties, and weakens mechanical properties such as tear strength. This can usually be avoided by routinely cleaning the inner surfaces of the die and by refinishing scratched or roughened flow surfaces. Gels – these defects are small, hard globules encapsulated in the film or stuck on the film surface and reduce the aesthetic appeal of the film and cause stress concentration points which may result in premature failure. These are caused by overheating to the point of polymer degradation in the die, and can therefore be avoided by cleaning the inner surfaces of the die on a regular basis. Optimization of the Process Coextrusion One way to improve the line efficiency of blown film extrusion is to implement coextrusion. This is the process of extruding two or more materials simultaneously through a single die. The orifices in the die are arranged such that the layers merge together before cooling. This process saves time because it extrudes two or more layers at the same time, and it provides a method with fewer steps to produce multilayer films. The production rate for a coextruded multilayer film of three layers is about 65m/min, and the production rate for a single layer of blown film is about 130m/min. Thus, in order to produce 10 000m of a three layer multilayer film, it would take almost 4 hours using a single layer blown film process, and only 2 and a half hours using the coextrusion process. Furthermore, the film produced from the single layer process would require an extra step to glue the layers together using some sort of adhesive. Coextrusion is the least expensive means of producing layered films and the coextrusion system is capable of quick changeovers to minimize production line down time.

Minimizing the Melt Temperature
The efficiency of blown film extrusion can be improved by minimizing the temperature of the polymer melt. Reduction of the melt temperature causes the melt to require less heating in the extruder. Normal extrusion conditions have a melting temperature at about 190 C despite the fact that the temperature of the melt only needs to be about 135 C. However, it is not always practical to decrease the melting temperature by that much. By decreasing the melt temperature 2 to 20 C, the motor load can be decreased by about 1 to 10%. Furthermore, reduction of the melt temperature causes less need for cooling, so there is a reduced use of the cooling system. Moreover, removing heat from the bubble is usually the rate-limiting factor in this extrusion process, so by having less heat in the polymer to remove, the rate of the process can be increased, thus yielding higher productivity. A way to maintain the melt temperature at a minimum is to choose an extruder that is matched to the specific processing conditions, such as the material of the melt, pressure, and throughput.

Heated Extrusion Die Lips
Typically, solutions to melt fractures involve decreasing the output or increasing the melt temperature to decrease the shear stress in the extruder. Both of these methods are not ideal because they both reduce the efficiency of the blown film line. Heated extrusion die lips can solve this problem. This targeted heating method allows for film extruders to be run at higher production rates with narrower die gaps while eliminating melt fractures. Direct heat is applied to the surface of the polymer melt as it exits the die so that viscosity is reduced. Therefore, melt fractures, which are caused when trying to extrude too much of the polymer at one time, will no longer act as a limiting factor to increasing the production rate. Furthermore, heated die lips use less energy than increasing the melting temperature because only the surface of the melt is heated and not the bulk of the liquid. Another benefit of using heated die lips is that thickness variations can be controlled by adding heat to certain areas along the die circumference to make the film at that position thinner. This would ensure that no excess material is used.
Determine how much energy each of these processes can save per given volume of material. 

Above article from www.appropedia.org

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News For This Month: Cards

Using a Mobile Device to Process A Credit Card

In the recent years, credit card transactions have become more common. The processing of credit cards using mobile devices has become the norm today. While processing credit cards, a number of companies are now using tablets. Without a credit card reader, it is impossible to process the credit card. For people who sell products outdoors, it is important to use a mobile device for processing a credit card. Processing a credit card using a mobile phone is essential for those who offer professional services.

There are various reasons why people are now adopting mobile phones to process credit cards. The price of using a mobile device to process a credit card is low. This means that a business will make more profits at the end of season. By using more checkout lines, a business will be able to rake in more profits. More registers are not required when processing a credit card using a mobile device. As a rule of the thumb, mobile credit processors are usually cheaper than the conventional methods of processing. However, the service provider will also influence the amount of money that a person will be charged for the processing.

There are a myriad of methods which might be used for processing credit cards. For instance, some of the clients will be charged fees depending on the number of transactions they have made. There are also companies who charge their clients based on a monthly basis. There are some companies which factor the customer service offered when arriving at the amount of money to charge for processing the cards. Indeed, there are some processing services which offer gateway services to the client.
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The ideal credit card processing company has to comply with all the regulations. In the process of finding a suitable credit card processing company, a person has to find out their daily costs. The application fees for a particular credit card processor have to be revealed. Most people cannot afford processing fees which are too high. It is also prudent to consider the setup fees which are usually charged by the processing company.
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Some people might not be pleased with the kind of services being offered by the processing company. Looking for an alternative is essential when one is not pleased with the kind of services offered by the company. When choosing a credit card processing service, it is prudent to consider the cancellation charges. There are many companies offering credit card processing services today. Undertaking some background research before choosing a credit card processor is very important. It is always prudent to read the whole contract of the credit card processing company before agreeing to sign.

Where To Start with Experts and More

How to Invest in Property

For a first time buyer, buying property could be overwhelming and complicated. You have to select a good property in a good neighborhood with desirable amenities for you to have higher chances of reselling it at a good profit. To ensure that you get the best bargain, you have to consider a wide range of factors that might lead you to buy the property. To make the sale successfully, you need to fix the budget, have the favorable price in mind, and do all the paperwork right for you.

Investing in property brings about many issues that you need to understand fully before you proceed. If you have never done it before, you could find yourself paying a fortune for a home that doesn’t even deserve to be on that price range. Having a realtor will give you an edge since he or she will help you understand everything that is entailed in the business and even handle most of the business on your behalf. Your realtor will explain everything you need to know and allow you to own property that you can easily resale at a higher price.

Consider the neighborhood when you invest in property since is it essential in ascertaining the value of the property. Despite the size or the design of the home, you have to make sure that it is located in an area where anybody would love to call home. For your property to sell faster, it should be in areas that are near the city’s main locations and also near transport networks.
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You shouldn’t go for anything that is way above your price range. Instead, you need to be clear with your priorities and choose a home that is within your budget. Most of the time, small homes in prime locations will sell at higher fees than bigger homes in the countryside. Find a realtor who is knowledgeable is such issues to help you find the best property that you can resell easily and at a very affordable rate. A realtor with good credentials can help you find the best choice among a wide range of choices.
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When viewing the homes, follow your instincts instead of fully depending on the rules. Think of the purchase as a buyer who is ready to settle and see if you would like to live in that kind of property. If the house needs renovations, get an estimate to avoid overpaying. If you find the property impressive, have your realtor help you fill all the documentation so that you can finalize the deal without any problems.

Questions About Companies You Must Know the Answers To

Why You Need A Professional Cleaning Company

Whether you are in the comfort of your home or in your office, cleanliness should be on the top of your priority list. Did you know that having a clean environment affects you positively when it comes to the quality of your life and how you handle your everyday tasks? Having a clean and organized surrounding will enable you to finish your tasks easier and quicker. Having a clean home and work place will also be an advantage health-wise because you will be inhaling clean and dust free air. To keep you comfortable, healthy, and productive, see to it that you put cleanliness on the top of your priority list.

The only problem is that keeping your spaces clean all the time requires a lot of your time and energy. If you have a busy household or business, cleaning your surroundings by yourself is not a very wise decision. If you like to have a clean environment but you just don’t have the time to clean, why not hire the services of a reliable cleaning company?

Cleaning your home is never a walk in the park especially if you have small kids present. Even if you exert effort to clean your home every now and then, the mess just doesn’t seem to go away. Professional cleaners will take care of your chores in a more systematic way. They are well-equipped and will make your home the haven you deserve.

To maintain the good image of your business, it is very important that you keep your office/ commercial space clean and orderly. Believe it or not having a clean environment will have a positive impact on the performance of your employees. Your money is well spent if you invest on the services of a good cleaning company.

If you are now searching for a reliable cleaning company near your area, you can easily find one online. Do you know that even cleaning companies have their own websites where they advertise their services to the public? To learn more about your potential cleaning company’s background, capabilities, and other services, just give their website a visit. It is likely that their contact details, email, and address are posted on their website.

While you are learning more about your potential cleaning company, see if you can find any reviews and testimonials written by their previous clients on their website. Remember that an honest client feedback will tell you a lot about their company. If you are happy with their reviews, you can relax knowing they can provide excellent service. To successfully find a reliable cleaning company near you, try being specific with your key words when typing on your browser’s search engine box.

Save yourself from a world of stress and hire a reputable cleaning company today.
Lessons Learned About Cleaning
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Benefits of Using Tree Removal Services There are many reasons why some homeowners want to have trees in their property and it may be because of their natural appeal to the area or because of the constant flow of fresh air that it gives. Trees also provide the much needed shaded during warm, sunny days. Trees, when neglected will have unruly branch growth, making it unpleasant to look at plus it can harm your lawn with its freak shading and it can also be dangerous at times. There are many beautiful trees that are home to Houston like the Oak, the Pecan, the Maple, or the Evergreen Trees, or the other smaller versions. Like any other living thing, trees need to be trimmed, a task which is quite dangerous. There are many reasons why trees also need to be maintained since they are exposed to the elements. Hiring a professional tree services is the best way to maintain your trees is you cannot handle it yourself. For the essential nature of the tree itself, a professional tree service provider is in the better position of keeping your tree healthier since they are more knowledgeable on the essentials of pruning, fertilizing, mulching, etc. Making your tree develop a strong structure and desirable form is what professionals know how to do. Another apparent benefit is you can keep yourself protected from harm. Working on a tree could be dangerous, so if you do not have lots of knowledge and experience to this kind of work or possibly do not own the correct safety equipment, you could be risking life or limb when you take this job on your own.
Getting Creative With Trees Advice
And, professionals can also do the job quickly. If you think you can do it all by yourself, think clearly is you know the methods to use to accomplish that task in a short time or if you can do it correctly instead of doing more wrong things that right ones.
Getting Creative With Trees Advice
Trees also can create a danger to its residence when they are left to develop without any control. Large tree roots can crack your sidewalks, warp your walls, and damage your house foundation. Overhanging limbs provide easy accessibility for squirrels and also rodents which may attempt to get into your attic. There can be great damage to your property if the tree limbs fall on your roof or any possession during a storm. If you want to remove an old tree, you should not attempt to do it by yourself with experience and equipment. Hiring a tree removal service company is the best way to ensure that your old tress will be removed without damaging property and hurting people.

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The Benefits of Professional Paper Shredding and Recycling for Businesses Paper shredding offers a secure and convenient practice of destroying paperwork but it does not actually get rid of the paper totally. Hence, shredding paper within your office premises means that you still need to find a way to have it removed and transported for recycling. Engaging a professional document shredding service not only makes sure that all of the data on your paperwork is safely destroyed but it means that the recycling process will be handled by professionals. By employing professional services, you can protect your reputation and your client relationships, the security of your business, and the identity of your employees and clients. Here are the top reasons to engage professional paper shredding and recycling services. Data Privacy
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Businesses and individuals alike have fallen victim to identity theft and scams because of the failure to secure the information contained in a certain document. A company should take great care in the way they destroy paperwork with important information so that they can protect their customers interests. Engaging the services of a document shredding company gives both business owners and customers comfort in knowing that their information is being handled and disposed properly. In specific cases, shredding of personal information is vital to keep a company compliant with state and federal regulations concerning how to properly destroy or handle personal information.
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Environmentally Friendly Every year, there are numerous forests that are torn down and destroyed because people need to use the resources they offer, most importantly, paper. Trees are important in maintaining the natural balance of our environment since it supplies oxygen, bark, shade, and helps enhance the quality of air. By cutting them down, humans are generating congested air and damage to the ozone layer. With the process of paper shredding and recycling, the requirement to cut down forests substantially decreases. Shredding paper can help alleviate many environmental issues by letting shredded paper be recycled into more paper or other useful items such as Styrofoam. Styrofoam production is innately detrimental to the environment, except when produced from shredded paper. Paper shredding companies are also working into recycling the big amount of paper they shred. Cheaper Option Hiring a reliable professional paper shredding and recycling service gets rid of the need to purchase costly equipment, plus it takes the burden of the work off your our employees and leaves it to the professionals. This lets your employees focus on the work they were meant to do. Professional document shredding also keeps unnecessary paper from turning into a fire hazard in your office premises. Lowering the amount of unnecessary paper makes your premises so much safer.

If You Think You Get Services, Then This Might Change Your Mind

When Would You Need Dumpster Rental Services

This article will show you particular situations where you would require the aid of dumpster rental services. Let us now discuss how essential these companies are. You have to be smart when throwing your trash and make sure to place them in the designated containers. The reason why people end up throwing their garbage anywhere is because there are no containers available for them to place it in. Throwing an event or a party would mean making sure you provide a container where all your guests can throw their trash in. There are so many types of events where you need to hire these services and they will be explained in this article.

If you plan on holding a huge party then it would be necessary to hire dumpster rental services for the tons of wastes this event will eventually cause. You can place those plastic cups in the right container without having to worry about anything else. You wouldn’t be able to count the times people end up puking during these parties so you definitely need a trusty trash bin around. Once the cleaning is done, you will definitely see how essential these dumpsters are. Their services are exactly what you need during this time.

Whenever groups plan on organizing large gatherings in fields, they would have to hire these services at all times. They are basically responsible for where the guests place their trash. People have to be able to access these dumpsters in the best possible way. Trash has to be properly segregated as well because this is also important. If there is any trash scattered, you want them easily dealth with right away.
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How would you be able to hire a good service? It would be great if you take a look online because there are so many options to choose from there. There are so many reviews to consider when it comes to these particular matters that making a decision wouldn’t really be that had. When a company has mostly good reviews then you don’t have to worry about anything else in the least, especially when making your choice. If the comments are mostly bad then be sure to steer clear from it. When it comes to these matters, you have to take the smart approach at all times.
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You have to consider these dumpster rental services and how they would be able to help you in the best possible way. When setting up an event like this, a person has to be responsible and provide his guests with the ideal containers for them to put their trash in. Keep the environment clean and help make the world a better place to live in by hiring these services.

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Dumpster Rental Information

For large projects like home-remodeling, dumpster rental can be the best method to dispose of waste. Home improvement tasks demand a lot of work, be it you are doing it yourself or employ an organization or contractor to get it done. As you put just purchased stuff in to the house, old stuff pile up, producing a large amount of litter. Leasing a dumpster is frequently the simplest and most cost effective means to dispose of the rubbish.

Dumpster rentals can be found in various designs and sizes, with three different kinds of loading alternatives. The junk from some jobs might be simpler to dump with a front loading or side-loading device, while other endeavors call for a top loading receptacle. Several dumpster rental firms provide various sizes and varieties to suit the demands of your job. They generally work with you to create a program for delivery and pickup. A number of businesses actually provide delivery on the exact same day the apparatus is ordered, so you may possibly simply wait for a few hours. You may possibly arrange a day for pickup during the time of the rental purchase, but many businesses will permit you to extend the date.

When you want to rent a dumpster unit, but are uncertain of what dimension or type you will need, several dumpster rental firms will assist you to select depending on the task you will be completing. They are going to frequently ask you what types of stuff you will need to dispose off. Waste types are separated into four basic classes-general waste, eco-friendly or yard waste, construction waste, and recyclables. The dumpster rental firms decide where the dumpster will have to be emptied depending on the type of waste inside. The sort of rubbish materials may possibly also affect the price of your lease, because some things are more costly than the others for the firms to dispose of.
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General waste normally comes from dwellings and may possibly include food waste, outdated carpet, or broken furniture. Green or lawn waste contains uncovered shrubs or trees, limbs, grass and leaves. Cement, dirt, rock, timber scraps, and some metal garbage are building waste. Recyclable stuff are the most significant group to separate from your other kinds of waste. It’s possible for you to load the dumpster with a number of different kinds of recyclable stuff, but not a thing that’s not recyclable.
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When your dumpster’s size, you will need to think about all the substances you are going to dispose of and how much space is necessary for the garbage. Remember your recently bought stuff might have packaging which you will have to get rid of at the same time. Dumpster dimensions are indicated in yards, but this really is perhaps not a measure of length. The dimensions typically vary from five to forty meters, rising in batches of five or 10. With each size of dumpster, there’s a given weight restriction for your garbage. You may possibly have to be mindful to not exceed the weight limitation should you be tossing away hefty stuff, like cement or tile garbage. Dumpster rental can save you lots of energy and time when you’ve got a large amount of garbage to dispose off. They truly are available in a variety of sizes to fit your demands, and may be sent and removed efficiently by a great dumpster rental firm.

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The Advantages of Using Solar for Your Business

When you talk about solar power, you can get a lot of benefits from it especially if you are in business field. The basic mechanism with this solar power is that it gets its energy from the sun and the light is transformed by the solar panel to electrical energy. The way the people utilized the solar energy to their advantage has grown to leaps and bounds.

Large solar projects are one of those who benefit from the solar power energy. There are businesses who do not know that they still have resources that left untapped for so long. The rooftops and the sidings of some of the buildings have been considered a potential source of income for some businesses. There are solar panels that you can observe on the rooftops and on the sides of the building nowadays. It has been a bad year for the businesses that some of them rethink about their expenses and assets on how they can manage it properly without spending to much on energy. The solar technology was able to help the businesses in order to reduce the costs of their energy.

Solar power from the sun be able to help you achieve an additional income for your benefit. A business that produces more of its energy than it requires simply sells the energy back to the power corporation or company for an extra income stream. If you have a large roof in your place or field and you plan to install some solar panels, you can now have a small electric power business or an electric company that all depends on the size of your solar coverage.

Solar power business can also create new jobs that will maintain the solar panels and will open more jobs for those who are looking.

Labelling the products as being made with the solar energy or wind energy can make the market share boost. It will be of great help to the company to boost on their marketing when they label it good and if the energy is from an alternative source like to wind or the common source which is the sun. Many people would prefer to use the renewable energy than those that are not since it can save a lot of money and can save mother earth.

The solar energy can also be used when it comes to the lighting solutions that sometimes causes problem to the car owners. Using the green solar energy on the things like street lights on the parking lots available and in lighting up the signs now makes sense. The signs and the parking will get many number of suns.

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The Available Options for Land Surveying Equipment If you wish to be able to purchase the land that is for sale and you wish to have it surveyed then the best way to do so is through the land surveying equipment. And if you are successful with your sustained land surveying equipment then you are guaranteed to be able to save a lot of money. And in today’s time, you will be presented with a lot of land surveying equipment before you will be able to invest. Yes, there are so many land surveying equipment that you need to choose from and some of which are namely the following: short term land surveying equipment, bonds and stocks. In this article, you will be able to know more information about these land surveying equipment in detail. A hole is created by the tools that are powered with the use of the hand for the reason that it revolves in order to be able to accomplish this. It is very easy to be able to make a hole for the reason that the drill has a sharp cutting edge. There is a need to be able to have a low torque and high speed when it comes to drilling. The replacement of the items that were made from the blacksmith eventually were replaced by these drills for the reason that there was a non stop development of these tools. The land surveying equipment that you see in the earlier times and the ones you see today are in fact similar. The land surveying equipment of today are already upgraded which is its main difference. This is the kind of industry that has undergone drastic changes because of the modern technology. You will actually be able to choose from a wide range of variety of land surveying equipment.
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One of the land surveying equipment that you will be able to choose from is the GPS surveying. What you need to know about this kind of land surveying equipment is that this is used for measuring. A satellite technology is what this kind of land surveying equipment makes use of. Another basic fact that you should be aware of the land surveying equipment is that they still make use of the total stations. There are actually those companies that are making use of more than one land surveying equipment. What you should know about this kind of company is that they are the ones that have more than enough budget to use more than one land surveying equipment. The reason why they are able to make use of more than one equipment is because they need to be able to get accurate results. The helicopter is used in order to be able to achieve this.A Simple Plan For Investigating Equipment